The CUDD Package defines several constant functions. These functions are created when the manager is initialized, and are accessible through the manager itself.
The constant 1 (returned by Cudd_ReadOne ) is common to BDDs, ADDs, and ZDDs. However, its meaning is different for ADDs and BDDs, on the one hand, and ZDDs, on the other hand. The diagram consisting of the constant 1 node only represents the constant 1 function for ADDs and BDDs. For ZDDs, its meaning depends on the number of variables: It is the conjunction of the complements of all variables. Conversely, the representation of the constant 1 function depends on the number of variables. The constant 1 function of n variables is returned by Cudd_ReadZddOne .
The constant 0 is common to ADDs and ZDDs, but not to BDDs. The BDD logical 0 is not associated with the constant 0 function: It is obtained by complementation ( Cudd_Not ) of the constant 1. (It is also returned by Cudd_ReadLogicalZero .) All other constants are specific to ADDs.
Besides 0 (returned by Cudd_ReadZero ) and 1, the following constant functions are created at initialization time.
-ieee_with_inexactmust be passed to the DEC compiler to get support of the IEEE standard. (The compiler still produces a warning, but it can be ignored.) Compiling with those options may cause substantial performance degradation on the Evolution IV CPUs. (Especially if the application does use the infinities.) The problem is reportedly solved in the Evolution V CPUs. If gcc is used to compile CUDD on the Alphas, the symbol HAVE_IEEE_754 must be undefined. (See the Makefile for the details.) The values of these constants are returned by Cudd_ReadPlusInfinity and Cudd_ReadMinusInfinity .
The background value is a constant typically used to represent non-existing arcs in graphs. Consider a shortest path problem. Two nodes that are not connected by an arc can be regarded as being joined by an arc of infinite length. In shortest path problems, it is therefore convenient to set the background value to PlusInfinity . In network flow problems, on the other hand, two nodes not connected by an arc can be regarded as joined by an arc of 0 capacity. For these problems, therefore, it is more convenient to set the background value to 0. In general, when representing sparse matrices, the background value is the value that is assumed implicitly.
At initialization, the background value is set to 0. It can be read with Cudd_ReadBackground , and modified with Cudd_SetBackground. The background value affects procedures that read sparse matrices/graphs ( Cudd_addRead and Cudd_addHarwell ), procedures that print out sum-of-product expressions for ADDs ( Cudd_PrintMinterm ), generators of cubes (Cudd_ForeachCube ), and procedures that count minterms ( Cudd_CountMinterm ).
New constant can be created by calling Cudd_addConst . This function will retrieve the ADD for the desired constant, if it already exist, or it will create a new one. Obviously, new constants should only be used when manipulating ADDs.